EU moves towards rust bucket banThe European Commission today published a black list naming 66 ships. That doesn't mean, however, that the EC has barred those ships from European waters. It has no powers of its own to do so. The list actually names substandard ships that would have been banned if new European maritime safety rules had already entered into force. The EC also announced that It is also proposing the prohibition, "once and for all," of the carriage of heavy fuel oil in single-hull oil tankers. It wants EU Member States to give their views on this new measure at the next European Council to be held in Copenhagen on December 12 and 13.In addition, the Commission is formally requesting the Member States to speed up and even implement ahead of schedule the maritime safety measures adopted following the Erika disaster three years ago.For its part, the Commission has already taken steps to speed up the establishment of the European Maritime Safety Agency. "Words are not enough," said Loyola de Palacio, EC Vice-President with special responsibility for transport and energy."It is necessary to act and apply maritime safety measures in full. Safety is the responsibility of everyone, and strict application of all the measures is the only way of ensuring that substandard ships do not fall through the safety net" She added "We also need to thoroughly amend the international rules, in particular in terms of criminal and financial liability. However, only by speaking with one voice within the International Maritime Organization can we have a bigger say." In a communication to the European Parliament and the European Council adopted today, the Commission draws the main conclusions from the "Prestige" disaster. It notes the very considerable progress that has already been made since the Erika disaster, but indicates that the measures in question must be applied in full by the Member States if they are to be truly effective. It also examines the rapid practical measures that could be taken in order to improve maritime safety and which could be rendered operational rapidly. Publication of a black list of very dangerous ships What Commission terms an "indicative black list" names 66 ships that have been detained on several occasions in European ports for failing to comply with maritime safety rules. The Commission hopes that operators will respomd by refraining from chartering substandard ships and that the owners and flag states of the ships in question will apply the tougher maritime safety standards straight away. Ban on the transport of heavy fuel oil in single-hull oil tankers The Commission has also decided to propose a Regulation prohibiting the transport of heavy fuel oil in single-hull tankers bound for or leaving EU ports. Heavy fuel oil, an extremely polluting but comparatively cheap substance, is often carried on the oldest and most unsafe ships. The Commission wants the Copenhagen European Council to call upon Member States to stress the importance of this matter. In addition, the Commission urges the Council to give it a negotiating mandate to ensure that candidate countries, as well as neighbouring countries which are relevant for the heavy fuel oil trade in EU waters, apply the same principles, through administrative agreements within existing cooperation frameworks, such as the Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control and Euro-Med. Earlier and accelerated application of European legislation The Commission also wants the Member States to take urgent practical measures to ensure the full application of the new safety rules. The Member States can no longer afford not to recruit an adequate number of inspectors in order to check at least 25% of ships, as required by the European rules now in force. They must ensure a sufficient level of inspection in all their ports and anchorage areas if they do not want them to become literally "ports of convenience". Establishment of the European Maritime Safety Agency The Commission says it has already done everything that is needed to ensure the early establishment of the future European Maritime Safety Agency. The appointment of its Executive Director is scheduled for January 2003. The Commission has already started work on putting into place the Community vessel traffic monitoring system, SafeSeaNet, which includes the establishment of a European data base and a network between the Member States for the exchange of real-time data from the transponders on board vessels so that the authorities can know, at any time, the identity, position and cargo of vessels sailing in European waters. The Commission also wants the Member States to draw up, ahead of schedule, national plans to accommodate vessels in distress in places of refuge. Compensation and additional measures It is also essential to raise the level of compensation for damage resulting from major maritime pollution, says the Commission. At the Diplomatic Conference of the International Maritime Organization in May 2003, the Member States should decide to ratify the Convention creating a third level of compensation and ensure that a sufficient amount of compensation (at least Euro1 billion) is established. These measures should enter into force before the end of 2003. The Commission is also proposing a series of additional measures, including in particular: legislation on the criminal liability of entities recognised as being responsible for maritime pollution through gross negligence. To this end, the Commission will make two proposals: one concerning the introduction of financial penalties for gross negligence resulting in pollution, and the other concerning illicit discharges. amendments to the international liability regime: the Member States should fully support the proposals aimed at ensuring that owners can no longer limit their liability if they are at fault, and putting an end to the immunity of other key players such as the charterers, operators, etc.; introduction of a Community-wide recognition system for certificates of competency issued to seafarers outside the EU. Accession to the International Maritime Organization Lastly, notes the Commission it is important for the Community to become a full member of the International Maritime Organisation in order to ensure that the Member States' positions are coordinated and that it plays a key role in tightening up maritime safety.
European Union Delegation of the European Commission to China
The Delegation of the European Union to China is responsible for the conduct of official relations between China and the European Union in all matters under the Commission responsibility. In all matters pertaining to the European Union, the Delegation works closely with the diplomatic missions of the 27 EU Member States。
Key words: China NATO common interest
The Delegation has different sections, including Political Affairs, Trade & Investment, Science, Technology & Environment, Information Society & Media, Agriculture, Econimic & Finance, Co-operation, Finance, Contract & Audit, Administration, and Press and Information。
One important responsibility of this Delegation is co-ordinating and monitoring the EU's Co-operation programme with China, which includes over 40 projects for co-operation in the fields of economic reform and human resources development, energy, environment, education and good governance. In that context, education is an important area in which the EU is cooperating or has successfully cooperated with China including higher education and various actions in the domain of Research and Technology.
The relation between China and NATO is extensively influenced by international configuration. So there exists a dynamic development process between China and NATO. In the new era, China and NATO have to establish good relations with each other in spite of divergencies. This paper would be divided into five parts: the development process between China and NATO, NATO’s attitude towards China, China’s attitude towards NATO, the reasons for cooperation and consultation between China and NATO, possible ways for China and NATO to cooperate with each other.
The development process between China and NATO
The Vandenberg Resolution by the US Senate in June 1946 opened the door for the establishment of NATO.Established in February 1952, NATO aimed to “safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the Washington Treaty and the principles of the United Nations Charter”.
After the end of WWII, the Cold War began with the Truman Doctrine. In the early period of the Cold War, China saw NATO as a hostile force against the socialist camp and a tool for US hegemonism.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the divergencies between China and the Soviet Union intensified. The Soviet Union had gradually become China's biggest threat. China and the United States with other NATO members began to improve relations. Under the guidance of “the three worlds ” theory, China saw European countries as part of the second world. In the mid-1980s, China and NATO began to contact with each other.
NATO bombed the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in the name of humanitarian intervention, which brought great harm to China and revealed NATO’s policy tendency that is to implement power politics and hegemonism under the control of the United States after the end of the Cold War. China closed its door to contact with NATO.
Since the reform and opening up, 40 years has witnessed China’s great economic development. China has gained more and more discourse in the international stage. The common interests between China and members of NATO are integrating and colliding, which result in the increasing frequency of contact between two side. The two side have realized that establishment of good relations is beneficial to the relative countries and the rest of the world.
NATO’s attitude towards China
The US and European countries are still haunted by the influence of financial crisis and debt crisis respectively. The reality of fiscal austerity forces NATO to adopt flexible policies. Since 2010, China has become the 2nd largest economy in the world, so NATO could reduce its operation costs through cooperation with China.
In the cooperative security part of NATO’s 2010 new strategic concept, we could see “The Alliance will engage actively to enhance international security, through partnership with relevant countries and other international organizations; by contributing actively to arms control, non-proliferation and disarmament. From this, the door of cooperative security is opened to any country and organization which is willing to cooperate with NATO in the security field. China could cooperate with NATO in the security field.
After 13 years of war, NATO formally ended its combat operations in Afghanistan on Sunday, leaving the Afghan army and police in charge of security in a country plagued by continued fighting, a ferocious insurgency and a rising tide of both military and civilian casualties. China, as a neighboring country of Afghanistan and Pakistan, has established an all-weather strategic partnership with Pakistan. After the US-led NATO withdrawal, the NATO side hopes that China could play a greater role to ensure stability in the region.
Here are also some NATO’s concerns about cooperation with China.
The first one: NATO is on the track of expanding eastwardly. In 2013, China’s president Xi put forward the idea of “the silk road”. The road starts from China, progressing westwardly. In the geostrategic area, Mackinder came up with the heartland theory. Accordingly, it was the Heartland (where the continental masses of Eurasia were concentrated) that served as the pivot of all the geopolitical transformations of historical dimensions within the World Island.
In the process of NATO’s eastern expansion and the road’s westward progress, there may be fierce competitions in the heartland area.
The second one: Counter-terrorism cooperation is often limited to dialogue and coordination between NATO and China. In the US’ National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, The Secretary of Defense may not authorize any military-to-military exchange or contact described in sub- section (b) to be conducted by the armed forces with representatives of the People’s Liberation Army of the People’s Republic of China if that exchange or contact would create a national security risk due to an inappropriate exposure specified in subsection (b).
NATO fears that if it strengthens military exchanges and cooperation with China, it will inevitably lead to the flow of intelligence and military technology into China. Because strengthening cooperation in counter-terrorism means the sharing of intelligence, common supervision and reconnaissance, and the necessary transfer of military technology.
Given China’s friendly relations with North Korea, Iran, Burma, Hamas and other so-called “rogue regimes”, NATO fears that China may leak military technology which will increase the strength of these countries and further threaten US traditional regional allies’ interests. (Japan, Korea, Philippines, Israel, etc.)
The last one: NATO fears that China may separate European countries and the US.
9/11 brought into sharp focus America’s relationship with the alliance, magnifying existing fault lines and cleavages and casing them in a new and more urgent light. In history and at present, there always exist divergencies between the US and other NATO’s members.
Charles de Gaulle was famous for Gaullism. In Laurent Warlouzet’s article, he wrote “In terms of Europe, his experience of the Second World War explains his willingness to assert Europe’s independence from the United States.” Charles de Gaulle wanted to build a Europe that belongs to the European people.
In Sten Rynning article, he wrote “In terms of global NATO, France and Germany were in alignment in so far as neither supported an extensive new range of consultation mechanisms to manage global affairs, though France’s opposition had a grander rationale than Germany’s. The two countries thus helped push NATO into the position where nothing much happened.” So from this, we could draw a conclusion that the European countries want the NATO to serve European countries interests. But the US see NATO as a tool to realize is national interests and want the European countries to bear more duties.
On May 11,2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Europe can no longer count on the United States for military protection and must "take its destiny into its own hands". So we could see that the relation between the US and other members of NATO is already not the same as the Cold War period.
The US fears that China may further strengthens its economic and trade relations with European countries by taking advantage of NATO’s internal contradictions and conflicts.
The US also fears that China may develop bilateral relations with NATO members outside the framework of NATO, which will have an impact on the US’ dominant role in the European countries.
China’s attitude towards NATO
The stability of Central Asia is in the interest of China. NATO continues to deepen cooperation with its partner countries in Central Asia — Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The central Asia plays an important role in the implementation of China’s silk road initiative. NATO’s counter-terrorism actions brings stability to Central Asia. From this perspective, China wants to cooperate with NATO on counter-terrorism issue.
NATO has developed “partners across the globe” such as Afghanistan, Japan, the ROK, Mongolia in China’s periphery. Indeed, China could frown when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe talked about “common values” in Brussels’ NATO Headquarters. China fears that NATO is in the process of encircling it, which will do harm to the relations buildup between China and its neighboring countries. NATO’s influence-seeking in Asia will definitely have a negative effect on China’s role in the area.
The reasons for China to seek cooperation with NATOStrategic adjustment
Whether you like it or not, NATO plays an important part in international strategic configuration. China is working hard to build up new type of major power relations with the US and comprehensive strategic partnership with European countries. NATO belongs to the US and European countries. From this perspective, it is a must for China to establish relations with NATO. In 1990s, China put forward the “New Security Concept”. In simple terms, security is no longer restricted to only military aspect but also encompassed non‐military issues like economy, ideology, environment/society, and science & technology. On September 28, 2015, Chinese President Xi spoke for the first time at the United Nations Headquarters. He elaborated to an international audience his concept of building a new model of international relations based on cooperation for the benefit of all. From the “New Security Concept” and “a new model of international relations”, China’s willingness to be integrated into the international security system is obviously expressed. NATO matters extensively in international security cooperation. Thus, China could not bypass NATO in the process of integrating itself into the international security system. China and NATO have already made some progress in international security cooperation. On Nov 25, the 21st task force of the PLA Navy had a drill with NATO Combined Task Force (CTF) 508 in the Gulf of Aden. The exercise included joint boarding and inspection on ships, replenishment at sea and mutual helicopter landings.
Non-traditional security issues, such as terrorism, energy security, climate change, are increasingly affecting world peace and stability. In the process of development, China and NATO need a stable and peaceful environment. Tackling the non-traditional security issues by joint efforts is in the interest of both sides.
China-European countries relations
In 2014, Xi visited the Brussels headquarters of the EU, the first time any Chinese president had done so. Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi described China and the EU as “strategic partners with great potential and development space” and that Europe was to be a priority for Chinese diplomacy. From the perspective of China, EU matters a lot in political field.
In the merger and acquisition field, European countries also matters a lot. “It shows that China has bought or invested in assets amounting to at least $318 billion over the past 10 years. The continent saw roughly 45 percent more China-related activity than the U.S. during this period, in dollar terms, according to available data.” In order to build up good relations with European countries, China must handle the relations with NATO properly.
The discords between the US and other members of NATO are advantageous to China-European countries development. President Trump has written sharply worded letters to the leaders of several NATO allies — including Germany, Belgium, Norway and Canada — taking them to task for spending too little on their own defense. The NATO summit will open on July 10, 2018 at Brussel. Before the summit, many activists marched through Brussel to protest president upcoming visit.” Marchers hit Trump over his trade policies, demand for more military spending from NATO countries, immigration policies and decision to pull the U.S. out of the Paris climate deal.”
Possible ways for China and NATO to cooperate with each other
Though Russia has always been the target of NATO, Russia has found some ways to contact with NATO, such as participation in Partnership for Peace, NATO-Russia Council. China could draw some experience from Russia. “China-NATO Council” must be a good way for two sides to communicate with each other, in which the two sides could settle down their disputes and find out common interests.
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan are members of SCO and also partners of NATO. China could contact with these four countries in the framework of SCO and know more about NATO, then try to build cooperation mechanism between China and NATO or SCO and NATO.
By strengthening cooperation on international issues, the two sides could communicate frequently with each other. In the process of cooperation, the two sides could find out each other’s concerns and share information with each other, which is of great significance to enhance strategic mutual trust. Enhancing strategic mutual trust is the first step for the two sides to build up good relations.